Harvard Apparatus CPK® Atomic Models are sold three ways:
1. Individual Atomic Models, Connectors, and Accessories. These are specified on the following pages.
2. Sets for Specific Purposes
3. Assembled Molecular Structures. It is often more convenient to buy pre-assembled molecular structures. There is a large selection of these on the following pages.
Harvard Apparatus is always ready to quote for the custom assembly of all types of molecular structures.
Specifications and Assembly
1.25 cm/Å. Large enough to maintain high accuracy, yet small enough so that macromolecules are not unwieldy. For example, a model 20 x 40 x 100 Å can be built on a table top.
Bond Angles ±0°30’; Covalent radii ±0.01Å; van der Waals radii ±0.03Å. These are as they occur in most biomolecular structures, and these data agree generally with those published by Corey & Pauling. However, several changes reflecting recent observations have been incorporated.
Less than 1.0 gram/ml for a molecule as a whole. For maximum strength with minimum weight, the atoms are hollow. Except for hydrogen, they are injection-molded in Implex, a hard and durable modified acrylic polyester. Hydrogen has an elastically-compressible polyethylene shell.
Atoms and connectors are easily identified since each component is color-coded. The color cannot be worn away since it is an integral part of the plastic. Further, atom surfaces are satin-finished so that they can be lighted easily for vivid photography to illustrate journal articles.
The rotation of certain atoms may be prevented with a special keyed link, see 67-7039 Connector Link, Locking on following page. The rotation of tetrahedral carbons in C-C bonds may be hindered with a special carbon link to produce the three-fold rotational potential
characteristic of such bonds, see 67-7047 Connector Link, Carbon on following page.
Linear and non-linear bonded hydrogen species provide functional H-bonds to the appropriate species of nitrogen and oxygen. H-bond distance is adjustable.
Special Atom Species
A user may construct additional atom species not offered as regular CPK Atomic Models and use them with the regular CPK Atomic Models by attaching the 67-7088 Socket. This Socket takes all seven of the connector links offered on the following page.
Assembling or Taking Apart CPK® Atomic Models is Easy.
A Connector Link is placed in the well on the end of the handle of the 67-7120 Construction Tool. The Connector Link is then pressed into the female socket of the atom. The second atom is simply pressed onto the first with a slight twist, and the bond is made.
To remove a Connector Link, the forked end of the 67-7120 Construction Tool is slipped around the center groove of the link, and the tool is pried upward.
The atoms are held together with great tenacity. A force of 5 to 7 kg is required to separate them. This force is readily furnished by the levering blade of the 67-7120 Construction Tool.
The marked superiority of the CPK® Atomic Models derives largely from Dr. Koltun’s Connector Links. His analysis of the engineering problems involved led him to combine new plastic materials with innovative link designs which satisfy four critical requirements simultaneously.
Since bond distances and angles for particular atoms are known to vary even in similar structures, two special links, in addition to the standard link, are provided to increase or decrease the normal bond distance by +0.08Å or -0.05Å.
A special ‘gluing’ link is also available for permanently connecting atoms at standard bond distances.
The various link types are color-coded to aid identification.
Hydrogen H-Bond, Hook Type
Indentation radius 1.35Å about a center 1.66Å from spherical center of hydrogen atom. This hook-type hydrogen is designed to add substantial structural strength to the CPK hydrogen bonding system. White.
To connect the 67-7112 Amine Cap to the hydrogen body of the 67-6726 Hydrogen H-Bond, Hook Type:
(1) Unscrew and remove the metalhook from the hydrogen body.
(2) The 67-7112 Amine Cap has a connector link as part of it. This connector link is hollow. Place a 67-7187 Screw for Amine Cap, see page P5, in the hollow connector link with the end of the screw protruding from the slot in the top of the 67-7112 Amine Cap, and use a slim screwdriver to turn this
screw into the hole in the hydrogen body from which the hook was removed.
The 67-6874 Oxygen, Single Bond and the 67-6916 Oxygen, Indented Double Bond have strong ribs to accept the metal hook of this 67-6726 H-Bond, Hook Type, Hydrogen. When the metal hook is placed over the rib of either of these oxygen atoms, the 67-7138 Hydrogen Wrench, see page P5, then fits over the eight-sided face of the basic hydrogen body, and this body is turned until the hook is brought up securely against the oxygen atom.
Note that one or more 67-7096 H-Bond Spacers, see page P5, can be put on over the hook to increase the bond distance by 0.2Å for each spacer used.
|Covalent Radii Single Bond||0.33|
|van der Waals Radii||1.00|